There are 3 acknowledged accessible sources of autologous grownup stem cells in humans: bone marrow, adipose tissue, and blood. Stem cells can also be taken from umbilical cord blood just right after birth. Of all stem cell treatment sorts, autologous harvesting involves the least threat.
Adult stem cells are frequently utilised in a variety of medical therapies (e.g., bone marrow transplantation). Stem cells can now be artificially grown and transformed (differentiated) into specialized cell sorts with qualities constant with cells of a variety of tissues this kind of as muscles or nerves. Embryonic cell lines and autologous embryonic stem cells created by way of somatic cell nuclear transfer or dedifferentiation have also been proposed as promising candidates for potential therapies. Research into stem cells grew out of findings by Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Until at the University of Toronto in the 1960s.
Stem cells are cells with the possible to build into many distinct sorts of cells in the body. They serve as a repair program for the body. There are two main sorts of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and grownup stem cells.
Stem cells are distinct from other cells in the body in 3 methods:
- They can divide and renew themselves over a extended time
- They are unspecialized, so they can’t do particular functions in the body
- They have the possible to turn out to be specialized cells, this kind of as muscle cells, blood cells, and brain cells
Doctors and scientists are excited about stem cells simply because they could support in many distinct areas of health and medical research. Learning stem cells might support explain how severe circumstances this kind of as birth defects and cancer come about. Stem cells might one particular day be utilised to make cells and tissues for treatment of many illnesses. Examples consist of Parkinson’s condition, Alzheimer’s condition, spinal cord damage, heart condition, diabetes, and arthritis.
How can stem cells treat condition?
When most individuals think about about stem cells treating condition they think of a stem cell transplant.
In a stem cell transplant, embryonic stem cells are very first specialized into the needed grownup cell type. Then, those mature cells replace tissue that is broken by condition or damage. This type of remedy could be utilised to:
- replace neurons broken by spinal cord damage, stroke, Alzheimer’s condition, Parkinson’s condition or other neurological troubles
- produce insulin that could treat individuals with diabetes and heart muscle cells that could repair damage right after a heart attack or
- replace almost any tissue or organ that is injured or diseased.
But embryonic stem cell-based mostly therapies can do significantly much more.
- Learning how stem cells build into heart muscle cells could provide clues about how we could induce heart muscle to repair itself right after a heart attack.
- The cells could be utilised to study condition, identify new drugs, or screen drugs for toxic side effects.
Any of these would have a significant impact on human health without having transplanting a single cell.
In concept, there’s no limit to the sorts of illnesses that could be handled with stem cell research. Provided that researchers might be capable to study all cell sorts by way of embryonic stem cells, they have the possible to make breakthroughs in any condition.
CIRM has developed condition pages for many of the main illnesses becoming targeted by stem cell scientists. You can find those condition pages right here.
You can also kind our total record of CIRM awards to see what we’ve funded in distinct condition areas.