Stem cell treatment is the use of stem cells to treat or avoid a condition or situation. Bone marrow transplant is the most broadly utilized stem-cell treatment, but some therapies derived from umbilical cord blood are also in use. Research is underway to develop different sources for stem cells, as properly as to apply stem-cell therapies for neurodegenerative diseases and problems this kind of as diabetes and heart condition, amid others.
Stem-cell treatment has turn out to be controversial following developments this kind of as the capacity of scientists to isolate and culture embryonic stem cells, to produce stem cells using somatic cell nuclear transfer and their use of techniques to produce induced pluripotent stem cells. This controversy is usually related to abortion politics and to human cloning. In addition, efforts to market therapies based on transplant of stored umbilical cord blood have been controversial.
For more than 30 years, bone marrow has been employed to treat men and women with cancer with problems this kind of as leukaemia and lymphoma this is the only form of stem-cell treatment that is broadly practiced. In the course of chemotherapy, most growing cells are killed by the cytotoxic agents. These agents, nonetheless, can not discriminate among the leukaemia or neoplastic cells, and the hematopoietic stem cells inside of the bone marrow. It is this side effect of typical chemotherapy methods that the stem-cell transplant attempts to reverse a donor’s healthful bone marrow reintroduces functional stem cells to replace the cells misplaced in the host’s body throughout treatment. The transplanted cells also make an immune response that helps to destroy off the cancer cells this method can go as well far, nonetheless, major to graft vs host condition, the most significant side effect of this treatment.
Another stem cell treatment named Prochymal, was conditionally accepted in Canada in 2012 for the management of acute graft-vs-host condition in young children who are unresponsive to steroids. It is an allogenic stem treatment based on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from the bone marrow of grownup donors. MSCs are purified from the marrow, cultured and packaged, with up to 10,000 doses derived from a single donor. The doses are stored frozen till essential.
The FDA has accepted 5 hematopoietic stem-cell goods derived from umbilical cord blood, for the treatment of blood and immunological diseases.
In 2014, the European Medicines Agency suggested approval of limbal stem cells for men and women with serious limbal stem cell deficiency due to burns in the eye.